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Bartholomew de Londres, obtenant son diplôme avec distinction en Il a été nommé enseignant universitaire enet professeur titulaire en Il a été élu Professeur Nuffield de médecine enet nommé chef du Département de médecine en Endo discovered the first statin drug, compactin, and demonstrated its clinical efficacy.

Statins are a class of drugs with remarkable cholesterol-lowering properties that have revolutionized the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease CHD. Endo sifted through thousands of organisms, hunting for natural substances products that block a key enzyme in the biochemical pathway that produces cholesterol, a major contributor to CHD.

This advance paved a path for other pharmaceutical companies to follow. By discovering statins, Dr. Endo ushered in a new era in preventing and treating CHD and it is estimated that millions of people have extended their lives through statin therapy.

In the early 's Dr. Hakim, who joined the University of Ottawa inled the charge to set up the Canadian Stroke Network, a network of centres of excellence; he then partnered with the Heart and Stroke Foundation and other organizations to develop and apply a nation-wide Canadian Stroke Strategy. This work was critical to changing attitudes towards strokes, which went from being a devastating condition to one that is preventable, treatable and repairable.

InDr. They also instituted a multi-layered national education program to enhance stroke prevention and the delivery of acute stroke care through the coordination of services and the implementation of best practices. He has concentrated in the three main areas of child health and nutrition, health program monitoring and evaluation, and health equity.

Returning to Brazil after his doctorate, he helped set up one of the longest running birth cohort studies in the world, the Pelotas Birth Cohort, in which 6, individuals are being followed up to the present time. His studies helped establish the influence of the first 1, days from conception until the age of two years on lifelong outcomes, including chronic diseases and human capital. Possibly, Dr. His findings contributed to global policy recommendations by UNICEF and the World Health Organization for mothers to breastfeed their infants exclusively for the first six months of life.

More recently, his long-term birth cohorts documented the benefits of breastfeeding for adult intelligence, education and income, as well as the long-term consequences of early-life undernutrition. Victora also made important contributions on how to evaluate the impact of health programs on child mortality and on the study of social inequalities in child health.

The work: Dr. Rappuoli is a pioneer in the world of vaccines and has introduced several novel scientific concepts. First, he introduced the concept that bacterial toxins can be detoxified by manipulation of their genes genetic detoxification, Next, the concept that microbes are better studied in the context of the cells they interact with cellular microbiology,and then the use of genomes to develop new vaccines reverse vaccinology, In the process of reverse vaccinology the entire genomic sequence of a pathogen is screened using bioinformatics tools to help determine which genes code for which proteins, against which vaccines can be developed.

The impact: Dr. Rappuoli also worked on several molecules which became part of licensed vaccines. He characterized a molecule, CRM, that today is the most widely used carrier for vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae, meningococcus and pneumococcus.

Later he developed a vaccine against pertussis containing genetically detoxified pertussis toxin and the first conjugate vaccine against meningococcus C that eliminated the disease in the United Kingdom in His work on reverse vaccinology led to the licensure of the first meningococcus B vaccine approved in Europe and Canada in and USA in These methods have shed light on how molecules involved in neurodegeneration can form abnormal structures that ultimately lead to diseased states.

In addition, his work has extended our understanding of how cellular machines function and how the communication between different parts of these machines can be targeted for the development of drugs in the fight against certain cancers.

The Impact: His research has expanded our understanding of the flexible nature of protein structure and the importance of flexibility to both function and malfunction.

This, in turn, has led to new insights into what the key regions of molecules might be for drug targeting. The methods developed by Dr. Kay are used in labs around the world, including those researching illnesses such as diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The tools developed by his research group are disseminated freely and are extensively used worldwide. The Work: Trained as a child neurologist, Zoghbi could not bear the plight of children affected by devastating neurological diseases so she pursued research in hope of helping her patients.

After encounters with patients with Rett syndrome—a disorder that strikes after a year of normal development and presents with developmental regression, social withdrawal, loss of hand use and compulsive wringing of the hands, seizures and a variety of neurobehavioral symptoms—she decided to find its genetic roots. The biggest challenge was that Rett syndrome is typically a sporadic disorder one in a family and the genome was neither mapped nor sequenced.

Zoghbi revealed the importance of MeCP2 for the function of various neuronal subtypes and pinpointed the contributions of various neuronal subtypes in the brain to various neuropsychiatric features. Zoghbi also provided maigrir vite du ventre mp3 indir that the brain is exquisitely sensitive to the levels of MeCP2 and that doubling MeCP2 levels causes progressive neurological deficits in mice. Her recent work showed the symptoms of adult mice modeling the duplication disorder can be reversed using antisense oligonucleotides that normalize MeCP2 levels.

The Impact: The discovery of the Rett syndrome gene provided a straightforward diagnostic genetic test allowing early and accurate diagnosis of the syndrome. It also revealed that mutations in MECP2 can also cause a host of other neuropsychiatric features ranging from autism to juvenile onset schizophrenia. Further, it provided evidence that an autism spectrum disorder ASD or an intellectual disability disorder IDDs can be genetic even if it is sporadic not inherited.

Moreover, her discovery opened up a new area of research on the role of epigenetics in neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Her use of an antisense oligonucleotide to lower MeCP2 levels provides a potential therapeutic strategy for the MECP2 duplication syndrome and inspires similar studies for other duplication disorders. In his research Dr. The research led to the identification and cloning of the specific protein responsible, named TRPV1. On the flip side, Dr. As in the case of TRPV1, this ion channel contributes to hypersensitivity to cold, such as that experienced after chemotherapy or other types of nerve injury.

Somatosensation, our sense of touch and pain, serves as a warning system to guard us against injury. While critical to our survival and well-being, this system can become hypersensitive, resulting in chronic pain. This work helps to explain how such positive and negative aspects of pain sensation arise — insight that is critical to understanding the genesis of chronic pain syndromes. One indication of the importance of this work to medicine is the interest connecticut medical rides TRP channels as potential targets for a new generation of painkillers.

Benzer's work in the 's, which was recognized by a Gairdner Award inachieved the fine-structure mapping of a gene, thereby laying the foundations of molecular genetics.

His later studies, recognized by the Gairdner Award, tackled the problem of the inheritance of behavior, using gene mutations to dissect the underlying events in the nervous system of the fruit fly, Drosophila. His work led to the discovery of specific genes that participate in various behavioral phenomena, including genes such as per, which controls the biological clock, dunce, which is needed for learning, and other genes, shown to be important for sexual courtship, vision, or prevention of neurodegeneration.

At age 82, Benzer continues to do pioneering research that focuses on the problem of aging, with Drosophila as a model organism. Graduating inhe continued his studies at the Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana, where he participated in the war effort to develop semiconductor devices for detecting radar microwaves.

On receiving his PhD inhe was appointed to the faculty at Purdue, but, inspired by reading Schrodinger's book "What is Life", soon requested leave of absence to study genes, spending two years with Max Delbruck at Caltech and a year at the Pasteur Institute with Jacob, Monod, and Lwoff.

Benzer moved his laboratory from Purdue University to Caltech in He also received the Canada Gairdner International Award in for pioneering discoveries that both founded and greatly advanced an entire field of neurogenetics, thereby transforming our understanding of the brain and its mechanisms.

Frederick Sanger also received the Canada Gairdner International Award in for epilation laser visage toulouse 67 contributions to the study of the structure of complex biochemical substances, and in particular for determining the precise chemical composition of insulin.

Oliver Smithies also received the Canada Gairdner International Award in for pioneering work in the use of homologous recombination to generate targeted mutations in the mouse.

Her interest in cytogenetics was sparked by her work as a Research Fellow in a clinic for retarded children at Cook County Hospital, Chicago, in the early days of human cytogenetics, and led to postdoctoral research at Oxford University in and again in She developed her academic career at the University of Chicago where she became a full Professor in even though she worked only three days a week while her children were young. She has provided some of the most persuasive evidence that tumours are associated with specific cytogenetic changes which reflect critical genetic changes.

Langer is the Kenneth J. The strength of his curriculum vitae is best illustrated by the fact that he has been elected to membership in all three academies - Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and National Academy of Science. There is general agreement that Dr. Langer pioneered the field of controlled drug release delivery systems slow release oral systems, transdermal patches, injectable microspheres, and slow release implants.

These delivery systems involve macromolecules that have been incorporated into solid polymers from which they are released at controlled rates. This development has revolutionized medical therapy, permitted new therapies for patients, and by reducing the dose administered, has avoided complications and reduced costs. Examples of current drug applications include nitroglycerin, nicotine, cancer chemotheraputics, hormones and vaccines.

In subsequent work, he determined the mechanism of release of drugs from polymers and then identified the factors that could be used to control the rate of release. Marshall was born in Kagoorlie, Western Australia, and educated in Perth.

He graduated in Medicine from the University of Western Australia in He is also the founder and President of the Helicobacter Foundation in Charlottesville. When he was a medical resident inDr. Marshall and pathologist Dr. Robin Warren noticed that spiral bacteria, though not recognized as common occupants of the human gastric mucosia, were present in over half the patients attending for upper GI endoscopy.

In Dr. Marshall was the chief investigator in a study that established the significance of the new bacterium in gastric ulcer and doudenal ulcer.

The organism was isolated and given the name Helicobacter Pylori. Later, initially through experiments with himself as a subject, Dr. Marshall established that gastritis associated with hypochlorhydria is symptomatic of acute H. Pylori infection. Marshall was the first to appreciate the need for drugs with an antibacterial effect rather than acid-reducing drugs, to reduce the relapse rate in duodenal ulcers.

James E. He is currently also the Vice-Chairman of that Institution. Rothman was the first one to develop in vitro assays to reproduce the intricate intracellular movement, targeting and delivery of goods among organelles. These in vitro reconstitution assays continue to be the gold standard in the description of novel intracellular pathways.

In addition, together with Dr. Gunter Blobel, Dr.

Rothman has made major advances in the discovery of the recognition of the signal peptide of proteins during translation. Together with Dr. Randy Schekman from Berkeley University, James Rothman developed and exploited the isolation and analysis of mutants of yeast which are defective in intracellular protein transport, and expanded these discoveries to the identification and cloning of the proteins that constitute the ubiquitous machinery of membrane docking and fusion.

Singer at UCSD. Schekman joined the Berkley facility in At Berkley, Schekman initiated studies on the mechanism of protein secretion using the model eukaryotic cell, S. A classic genetic approach was developed to illuminate the processes of polpeptide import into the endoplasmic reticulum, protein sorting, and packaging into transport vesicles to acceptor membrane compartments.

SEC genes that encode the proteins implicated in these processes were cloned and shown to be evolutionary conserved.

Mammalian orthologs of the yeast SEC genes are now known to define most aspects of normal and specialized secretory processes. Schekman's group developed complementary biochemical approaches to define the exact roles of SEC proteins.

Novel insights included the discovery of the major subunit of the polypeptide translocation channel of the ER sec61pthe demonstration that cytosolic hsp70 promotes the post-translational translocation of secretory and mitochondrial precursor polypeptide, and the isolation of a novel coat protein complex, COPII, responsible for secretory and membrane cargo sorting and anterograde vesicle budding from the ER. Attardi was born in Sicily and studied medicine at the University of Padua where he obtained his MD degree in She received the Australia Prize in and is a fellow of the Royal Society.

Blackburn's laboratory. In he moved to the University of Göttingen until when he returned to the University of Munich as a Professor of Biochemistry and Cell Biology. Professor Neupert has been a member of the editorial board of numerous journals including Cell, Europeon Molecular Biology Organization Journal, and the Journal of Biological Chemistry. He received his postdoctoral training at the University of Vienna. From tohe worked as a postdoctoral fellow at the Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York on the mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation.

After a brief interlude back in Vienna, Dr. Sincehe has been a Professor at the renowned Biozentrum of the University of Basel, Switzerland, of which he was chairman for two years. He has received more than 12 international prizes and medals including the Louis Jeantet Prize for Medicinethe Lynen Medal and the Otto Warburg Medal He carried out post-doctorial research at the University of California Medical Centre, San Francisco from to Hershko has pursued his research on intracellular proteolysis at the Technion, where he was appointed Associate Professor inProfessor in and Distinquished Professor in Through rigorous biochemical experimentation, Dr.

Hershko discovered the role of ubiquitin modification in energy dependent proteolysis and defined the enzymatic machinery that catalyzes ubiquitin conjugation. Hershko was awarded the Weizmann Prize in and the Israel Prize in From toDr. Varshavsky directed a research group at the Institute of Molecular Biology. Varshavsky was appointed Associate Professor in and Professor in By genetic analysis in yeast and mammalian tissue culture cells, Dr. Varshavsky elucidated many of the essential roles of the ubiquitin pathway in cellular function.

He was elected to the U. Varshavsky moved his laboratory to the California Institute of Technology in During his post-doctoral fellowship with Dr.

Sydney Brenner, Gairdner Awardee, Dr. Horvitz began using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple model system to study development.

Horvitz described the genetic basis of programmed cell death in the development of this organism. He discovered many of the regulatory genes controlling apoptosis and showed that similiar genes exist in humans. Horvitz's work definitively showed that apoptosis was a genetically regulated mechanism and has subsequently led to the discovery of countless novel death signalling pathways whose dysregulation directly contributes to human disease.

He has consistently published in high-quality journals and has served on many editorial boards, visiting committees and advisory committees. Sloan Jr. Prize in He is a member of the U. Wyllie coined the term "apoptosis", outlined the cardinal characteristics of this program of cell death and articulated the significance of apoptosis in human disease. The conceptual breakthrough provided by Dr.

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Wyllie and his subsequent championing of this field have led to numerous presentations at prestigious international symposia. Among Prof. Robert Roeder is honored for his pioneering contributions to the field of transcription of genetic information, a theme of central importance in the biology of eukaryotic nucleated cells.

He is recognized especially for his description of the complex array of protein factors involved in transcription, notably his analysis of three RNA polymerases and the development of assays for their activities. He has continued to make significant contributions to the identification and cloning of eukaryotic transcription factors and to pursue the detailed characterization of the transcription apparatus and its regulation, work which has important applications in medical science.

His interest in transcription began when he was a graduate student. Among his many honors are the Lewis S. Steel Award in Molecular Biology. Roger Kornberg is honored for his pioneering research in the field of transcription, a theme of central importance in the biology of eukaryotic nucleated cells.

He is recognized primarily for his significant studies of the components involved in the regulation of gene expression. One of his key contributions has been his discovery and detailed description of the nucleosome a structural unit of packaging of chromosomes which has influenced much later work on the structure of chromatin and its role in gene regulation.

Kornberg continues to work on chromatin structure and gene regulation having made many significant contributions. His postdoctoral training was in Cambridge, England, at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, where he was also later a member of the scientific staff. Alain Townsend is honored for seminal contributions to the understanding of T-cell activation and its regulation.

He observed that T cells can recognize portions of a pathogen that are not expressed on its surface. This gave rise to experiments demonstrating that viral pathogens are degraded inside antigen presenting cells, and ultimately pieces of the virus derived from its core associate with Class I products of the Major Histocompatibility Complex MHC.

Subsequently Dr. Townsend established the essential role of these components in the assembly and surface expression of MHC Class I molecules themselves, leading to the discovery of peptide transporters in the endoplasmic reticulum. These fundamental contributions established the integral role that pathogens play in regulating immune system function, and a new paradigm of MHC gene expression and function relevant to the rational understanding of infectious and autoimmune diseases.

Townsend is a medical graduate of St. Mary's Hospital, London where he first developed his interest in human diseases associated with alleles of the MHC complex. His honors include the William B. Emil Unanue is honored for his seminal contributions to the understanding of T-cell activation and its regulation. He showed that T-cells do not recognize intact pathogens but rather, recognize small components of the pathogen presented in the context of Class II products of the Major Histocompatibility Complex MHC.

The discovery of the molecular and cellular basis of this process has provided a new interpretation of how the cells of the immune system recognize pathogens, and has opened up novel approaches to a rational analysis of the pathobiology of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Unanue graduated in medicine in from the University of Havana, Cuba. He has also made distinguished contributions as a speaker, author, editor and member of scientific organizations and has been Chair of the National Academy of Sciences Section of Microbiology and Immunology.

Jack Hirsh is a medical scientist equally at home in the laboratory and the clinical setting. His many distinguished contributions to the field of thromboembolism, which combine basic research, patient management and clinical trials, underlie the therapy of thromboembolism worldwide.

His original observation in of the relationship between the in vitro anticoagulant activity of heparin and its efficacy in patients with venous thrombosis found immediate and widespread clinical application.

His subsequent demonstration, with his colleagues, of the superior clinical efficacy of low-molecular-weight heparin revolutionized anti-thrombotic treatment, allowing management on an outpatient basis. His work on oral anticoagulants led to the development of the International Normalized Ratio, an advance in laboratory diagnosis and to clinical trials that assessed the efficacy and risk: benefit ratio of anticoagulants in a variety of clinical situations.

Hirsh and his colleagues also established the value of aspirin in the prevention of stroke. These different but related observations have changed the clinical management of thromboembolism and have had a significant effect on patients' lives. Born in Australia, Dr. Hirsh is a graduate of the University of Melbourne Medical School. He expanded his background in hematology at Washington University, St.

Much of our present knowledge concerning ion channel structure and function can be traced to Dr. Clay Armstrong. A consistent feature of Armstrong's contributions is the absolutely quantitative nature of the work and the resulting fidelity of his clear and concise descriptions. His work has been so profound that it has had enormous influence on the work of others, leading to our present understanding of channel structure and function.

Armstrong's seminal work is of enormous value to human disease, the relief of human suffering and the broader aspects of medicine because of subsequent development of drug therapies that work through channels. Louis in He was a postdoctoral fellow with Dr. Cole at the NIH from and with Dr. Huxley, University College, London from He has held professorial appointments at Duke University, the University of Rochester and the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, where he has been Professor of Physiology since Bertil Hille has provided medical science with a foundation for modern understanding of ion channels; his findings being as important for cardiac muscle as for the brain.

His work has had enormous influence on the work of others, in no small part because his book on ion channels is widely read, being readily understood by novices in the field. Clinical medicine owes the concept of use-dependant block of ion channels by local anesthetics to Hille. These contributions are all relevant to the development of drug therapies that work through channels. Thus Hille's seminal work is of enormous value to human disease and relief of human suffering and to the broader aspects of medicine.

Hodgkin at the Physiological Laboratories, Cambridge University from It is a stunning accomplishment that solidifies all of the work on the structure of the pore. MacKinnon has driven his field forward with an exceptional focus and intensity. His early work on the pore focussed attention on this critical region; his later work on the crystal structure has opened the field to other investigators who now have a firm basis for further molecular analysis. His work explains at the molecular level, exactly how drugs and toxins alter the properties of channels.

His contributions, which are relevant to the development of drug therapies that work through channels. Miller at Brandeis University from Marc Kirschner is the quintessential Cell Biologist. The breadth of his knowledge and the scope of his research are unique: he has made extremely important contributions in three seperate areas of modern Cell Biology.

His studies of tubulin and associated proteins constitute a large fraction of our current understanding of the structure, dynamics and regulation of microtubules. In addition, Dr. Kirschner has contributed greatly to the elucidation of the pathways that underlie morphogenesis, using amphibians as a model.

Last but not least, he has been instrumental in identifying the elements that control the progression of the cell cycle. Kirschner's versatility and integrative ability are unprecedented in modern Biology. His postdoctoral training was initially at Berkeley and subsequently at Oxford, UK. Inhe was appointed Assistant Professor at Princeton University where he remained untilthe year he was promoted to Professor of Biochemical Sciences.

Henry Friesen also received the Canada Gairdner Wightman Award in for his leadership to Canadian medical research and especially for leading to the establishment of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. James Watson has enjoyed international recognition sinceas the co-discoverer with Francis Crick of the double helical structure of DNA.

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Today he is recognized as the major figure behind the Human Genome Project. In that role he recruited key scientists to the project, as well as professionals concerned with ethical, legal and social issues. His contributions of creativity, vision and intuition have been of immeasurable value to the Human Genome Project. He was a postgraduate student at the University of Cambridge when the breakthrough in DNA research occurred.

Among innumerable honors, he has recently been named an honorary Knight of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth. Green, a mathematician, has had a broad and profound impact on the development and success of genome analysis. His software has made possible the automated sequencing of the three billion base pairs in the human genome and represents the most important technical advance in DNA sequencing of the 's. He was the first to recognize that only a subset of genes evolve sufficiently slowly to maintain recognizable sequence similarity across phylogenetically distant groups and was one of the first to recognize that the true number of human genes was much less than thepreviously estimated.

Since he has been at the University of Washington, Seattle. Eric Lander has been one of the driving forces behind the genomics revolution. The Whitehead Pack soin du visage homme dessin Center for Genome Research, of which he is the founder and Director, has been responsible for developing key tools of modern mammalian genomics.

The Center has identified numerous human genes and has made the data available to the scientific community. Lander and his colleagues have also pioneered in the application of genomics to biomedical research, such as methods for analyzing complex genetic traits. Among diseases of special interest to his group are cancer, diabetes, hypertension and dwarfism. Lander is a geneticist, mathematician and molecular biologist.

Among many other distinctions, he was selected to deliver a special Millennium Lecture at the White House in One of the first graduate students of Sydney Brenner in Cambridge, he set up an independent laboratory that helped to establish the nematode worm c. Following a second visit to Cambridge to work with John Sulston inhis work increasingly concentrated on genomic mapping and sequencing.

Building on his experience, he led one of the teams that published the working draft of the human genome in Waterston was at Washington University, St. He has had close scientific collaborations with many prominent genome researchers on both sides of the Atlantic and had a pivotal role in the completion of the first rough draft of the human genome in Maynard Olson was one of the first to recognize the potential of genome analysis and to develop experimental techniques for analysis of complex genomes.

The YAC system has become routine for positional cloning of genes involved maigrir sport maison tunisie human diseases and was the prototype for other large-fragment cloning systems that play a central role in genome analysis.

Olson graduated from the California Institute of Technology and earned a Ph. His major interest changed to genetics during his faculty positions at Dartmouth College, the University of Washington, Seattle and Washington University, St. Louis, where he became a Professor of Genetics.

His many honors include the Genetics Society of America Medal. Craig Venter has played a vital role in the sequencing and analysis of the human genome. His accomplishments in the development of methods for decoding genetic sequences, notably expressed-sequence tags ESTs and in bioinformatics, have provided a foundation for understanding the relationships between species and the biology of microbes.

He is known for the so-called "shotgun sequencing" strategy, which accelerates sequencing and is now a central component of all whole genome-sequencing strategies. Michael Waterman is responsible for the introduction of some of the most important mathematical concepts, statistical models and computer algorithms used for genome analysis.

He pioneered RNA secondary structure prediction, evolutionary tree comparison, gapped alignment, parametric alignment and other sequence analyses. He has recently released a new algorithm representing a remarkable improvement in the efficiency and accuracy of genome sequence assembly.

He has trained many prominent computational genomicists and has been a prime mover in the development of the field. Waterman graduated in mathematics from Oregon State University and obtained his Ph.

Jean Weissenbach is recognized for his work in human molecular genetics, particularly his studies of the human sex chromosomes, linkage mapping and the mapping and cloning of disease genes. His studies of linkage led to the construction of the first extensive map of the human genome and greatly accelerated this field, while his own research on disease genes and his extensive network of collaborations demonstrated the usefulness of unpublished data from the genetic linkage map.

He is currently Director of Genoscope, the French National Sequencing Centre, which is actively contributing to the sequencing of genes on chromosome Francis Collins also received the Canada Gairdner International Award in for his outstanding leadership in the Human Genome Project and particularly for the international effort to map and sequence the human and other genomes. Ralph Steinman was a cell biologist whose research focused on the immune system including the human immune system in the setting of several diseases.

He and his collaborators discovered a previously unknown class of immune cells, called dendritic cells. Dendritic cells are important and unique accessories in the onset of several immune responses including graft rejection, resistance to tumors, autoimmune diseases, and infections such as AIDS. After completing an internship and residency at Massachusetts General Hospital, he joined The Rockefeller University in as a postdoctoral fellow in the Laboratory Cellular Physiology and Immunology headed by Dr.

Zanvil A. Cohn and the late James G. He was named Henry G. Ralph Steinman is editor of the Journal of Experimental Medicine and serves on numerous editorial and advisory boards. Richard Axel's laboratory studies how sensory information is represented in the brain. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given receptor project to spatially invariant loci in the brain to create a topographic map of olfactory information.

His studies suggest a mechanism by which this sensory map may be translated in higher brain centers to allow for the discrimination of odors and appropriate behavioral responses. Linda Buck explores the mechanisms underlying smell, taste, and pheromone sensing in mammals. In the olfactory system, hundreds of different odorant receptors are used in a combinatorial fashion to encode the identities of thousands of odorous chemicals. Studies using receptor genes as molecular and genetic tools have revealed how these combinatorial codes are represented in the nose, olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex to ultimately generate diverse odor perceptions.

She did postdoctoral research in neuroscience at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeon. Linda Buck's honors include the Lewis S. Wright Award in olfactory research, the Unilever Science Award.

Wayne Hendrickson's pioneering studies of the anomalous dispersion effect have established this technique as the method of choice for determining protein crystal structures in as rapid and straightforward manner as possible and has made the concept of structural genomics an experimental reality. In addition to his central role in the development of multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction MAD methods, he was also a pioneer in the development of computer programs that are used to build and refine atomic models for proteins on the basis of X-ray diffraction measurements.

His contributions to methodology are complemented by his determination of the first structure of a tyrosine kinase and the structure of the HIV protein, gp, in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody.

Inhe joined the faculty of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics at Columbia. He showed that this functional brain mapping depended on the oxygenation status of the blood feeding the active neurons. It is used in surgical planning to identify the motor cortex. He is the recipient of a number of awards in Magnetic Resonance, is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and this year was awarded the Japan International Prize.

John Ellis was a leader in the field of chloroplast biogenesis. He studied the biochemistry of the development of chloroplasts in higher plants. In Ellis discovered the first molecular chaperone.

He found that in chloroplasts unassembled subunits of the rubisco complex were associated with another protein which turned out to be a chaperone. These seminal experiments foreshadowed the discoveries of Horwich and Hartl. Ellis subsequently made substantial contributions to the concept of molecular chaperones which are required to assist a variety of cellular processes in all types of cells.

Ellis earned his doctorate in from King's College, London for research on transamination reactions with Professor Davies. Postdoctoral studies were done at Oxford in the Biochemistry Department on sulfate reduction in bacteria with Professor Pasternak. In was awarded a Personal Chair in the department and in was elected to the Royal Society.

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Ulrich Hartl's research is in mechanisms of cellular protein folding, specifically the structure and function of molecular chaperones. He delineated, resolved and reconstituted the complete pathway by which molecular chaperones cooperate to fold proteins in the living cell.

In a series of elegant studies he established how the folding protein is recognized by one chaperone, thereby preventing premature misfolding, and then transferred to a molecular machine which promotes proper folding. While initially highly controversial, this mechanism is now well accepted and confirmed by x-ray crystallography. When these protein folding soin visage phyts are saturated or non-functional, protein aggregates accumulate in the cell.

Examples of diseases that are likely the result of such aggregates are Alzheimer's and Huntington's Diseases. Hartl earned his medical degree from the University of Heidelberg in He began his postdoctoral fellowship in organelle biogenesis at the Institute of Physiological Chemistry at the University of Munich and continued his studies in protein secretion at the University of California at Los Angeles.

In he was appointed to the William E. Arthur Horwich is a pioneer in the field of molecular chaperones. These are a special class of proteins that assist other proteins in folding into their final form, which determines their function.

Horwich discovered an accessory protein that is required for folding of proteins imported into mitochondria. His discoveries have advanced the understanding of protein folding and have profound implications for diseases, such as Alzheimer's, that are thought to result from protein misfolding.

Horwich is a recipient of the Hans Neurath Award. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. George Sachs is an exemplary bench to bedside medical scientist. These agents have truly revolutionized the therapy for gastric acid disorders such as ulcers and gasttroesophageal reflux, which has benefited millions of patients, reduced greatly the need for surgery and simultaneously created a billion dollar industry. Sachs continues his translational research in defining mechanisms for gastric disease and producing new agents to optimize treatment.

Sachs, born in Austria, is a medical graduate of the University of Edinburgh in Sachs has had many professional and editorial responsibilities and his honours include the Beaumont Prize and the Hoffman LaRoche Award. The incidence of obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries.

Importantly, Douglas Coleman is a pioneer in the field of obesity. His innovative studies in mouse genetic models of obesity in the early s provided compelling evidence for the existence of a hormone system that participated in the control of fat cell homeostasis. His research was the first to hint that the "dumb" fat cell participates in regulating the integrative biology of metabolism and weight control. Using elegant parabiosis cross-circulation protocols he noted that deficiency of a circulating "satiety" factor, or resistance to a circulating "satiety" factor, explained the phenotype of the obese ob and diabetes db mice, respectively.

He concluded that the circulating factor would be fat cell-derived. The ob and db mice are now known to carry mutations in the leptin ligand and leptin receptor, respectively. These seminal findings, performed using integrative physiologic approaches, provided breakthrough insights into the causes of obesity. His full career has been spent at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbour, Maine, where he performed his classic parabiosis studies.

Douglas Coleman is a recipient of numerous prestigious awards and accolades including the Claude Bernard Medal and membership in the National Academy of Sciences For more than 50 years, the name of Professor Brenda Milner has been synonymous with memory. In the early s, in collaboration with Dr. The origins of modern cognitive neuroscience of memory can be traced directly to her rigorous and imaginative studies. She continues to pursue her research activities using modern brain imaging to dissect even further key components and regions functionally involved in cognitive processes.

Her research has paved the way to molecularly-oriented approaches aimed at deciphering key genomic and cellular steps leading to memory traces. Since her service at the Universite de Montreal as Professeur agrege at the Institut de psychologieshe has been associated with McGill University, where she first became Research Associate in the Psychology Department in Endel Tulving has clarified the nature of human memory at the behavioural level and made substantial additions to our knowledge of its neural correlates.

His theorizing is of unusual breadth and coherence, has dealt with the relations between memory and consciousness at the experimental level, with the measurement of memory organization at the behavioural level, with methods for distinguishing memory systems at the experimental level, and with the neuroanatomical correlates of memory systems and processes at the level of brain mechanisms.

In an incredibly productive career spanning nearly half a century, he has radically changed how scientists view human memory, and his theoretical frameworks now guide the whole field of memory research. Tulving was born in Estonia, moving to Canada as a young adult. He earned his doctorate from Harvard University in and accepted a position at the University of Toronto. He remained in Toronto except for a brief period at Yale Universityserving as Chair of the Department of Psychology from toand becoming University Professor in Jeffrey M.

Friedman is a leader in the biology of the mechanisms that control body weight. In he completed an investigative "tour de force" that spanned nearly a decade when he discovered the genetic defect in the murine "obese" ob mutant. Leptin was the first fat cell-derived hormone to be discovered. Building on the seminal early work of Douglas Coleman Gairdner International Award Winner he employed positional cloning approaches to characterize the defective gene well before the advent of today's repositories of gene sequence and sophisticated investigative genetic tools and informative DNA markers.

The isolation of the gene rapidly led to his integrative studies which helped define the biological effects of leptin at the whole animal level and the elucidation of a genetic defect in the leptin receptor in the "diabetes" db mouse model of obesity. Taken together his work provided the "spark" that has ignited an international frenzy of academic and industry-based research into the study of the causes and treatment options for obesity.

The discovery of leptin and newer studies defining the link between leptin released from fat cells and modulation of brain function by leptin have fundamentally advanced our understanding of the control of total body fat content. Most recently, he has been awarded many accolades and awards including membership in the National Academy of Sciences and the Bristol-Meyers Squibb Award for Distinguished Achievement in Metabolic.

Andrew Fire, with his studies on gene regulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, has made important contributions to describing and elucidating mechanisms of gene silencing by double stranded RNA. This paradigm of gene silencing contributed to by the work of Fire has been described as "one of the most exciting discoveries of recent times in molecular biology".

Much effort has been focused on the efficacy of a system that can use just a few molecules of dsRNA to silence a large population of target molecules. The underlying responses to these silencing triggers are present in many organisms, and in plants have clearly been shown to be involved in response to pathogenic challenges.

These gene silencing processes in animal systems have a role in viral pathogenesis and in tumor progression in mammalian systems. Sydney Brenner from Craig Mello is a pioneer in the field of regulation of gene expression by small RNA molecules, an area recently described as "arguably the most important advance in biology in decades".

His studies, focused through elegant experiments with a very powerful model organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, were and continue to be instrumental in elucidating mechanisms of gene regulation through short double-stranded RNAs, short interfering siRNA.

RNAi has become an extremely powerful tool for basic studies on gene silencing and has led the way to important practical applications in biotechnology and medicine. He is known in both the developed world and in East Africa for his research as a clinical scientist and as a humanitarian who has given selflessly in nurturing others. He mentored 70 infectious diseases Fellows who have gone on to populate Canadian academic institutions.

He began a shared program with the University of Nairobi where over 80 Africans have received MSc or PhD degrees, and in collaboration with major universities over peer-reviewed papers have been published. Central to these have been studies on the epidemiology of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Ronald was born in Manitoba and graduated in medicine from the University of Manitoba Ronald was head of the Department of Medical Microbiologyand H.

Sellers Professor and Head of Internal Medicine Starr Award CMA. Ralph Brinster is a pioneer in the development of techniques for manipulating the cellular and genetic composition of early mouse embryos. These techniques have made the mouse the major genetic model for understanding the basis of human biology and disease.

He began his work by showing how mouse embryos could be cultured in a Petri dish in a simple culture medium and then showing how cells could be added to such embryos to make animals of mixed cell origins or chimeras. This work was a key enabler of targeted mutagenesis in embryonic stem cells, which has revolutionized our ability to understand gene function in mammals. He is acknowledged as the founder of the field of mammalian transgenesis, with its applications to human disease models and biotechnology.

In recent years he has developed new models of germline manipulation using sperm progenitor cell transplants. In all these studies, Dr. Brinster has been an innovator, a perfectionist and a forward thinker, understanding clearly the need to develop enabling technologies to pursue novel biological questions.

His range of contributions is unmatched in the field. Brinster grew up on a small farm in Cedar Grove, New Jersey, where some of his early experiences with animals included, as a teenager, running a small poultry business, which helped finance his studies in veterinary medicine.

He is a member of the National Academy and the Institute of Medicine and has received many awards and honours including the Wolf Prize, and the first March of Dimes Prize in Developmental Biology in La mise en place des prothèses s'effectue grâce à une incision dans la zone aréolaire.

La pigmentation naturelle de cette zone permet un hyperpigmentation treatment with vinegar idéal de la cicatrice d'incision, dont la couleur se fond avec celle de l'aréole. C'est la voie à privilégier lorsque les conditions anatomiques de la patiente le permettent.

En passant par les incisions, le chirurgien positionne les implants, soit derrière la glande, en avant des muscles pectoraux implantation pré musculairesoit, en arrière des muscles pectoraux implantation rétro musculaire. Des antalgiques sont à prendre pendant quelques jours. Il est nécessaire d'éviter l'exposition des cicatrices au soleil pendant quelques mois.

Les risques de déplacements de l'implant et d'infections qui sont exceptionnels, peuvent nécessiter une nouvelle opération. Le volume des seins et leurs formes sont améliorés. Les cicatrices restent en général discrètes. La silhouette est transformée. Un délai de deux à trois mois est nécessaire pour apprécier le résultat définitif.

Le médecin-conseil vérifiera ensuite les éléments cliniques et donnera ou non son accord. Renseignez-vous auprès de votre chirurgien et demandez-lui un devis préalable.

Le conseil du chirurgien sera à ce niveau primordial. Dr David Picovskichirurgien plastique et esthétique à Paris. Dossier sur l'opération d'augmentation mammaire du Dr Picovski. Chirurgie esthétique : toutes les vidéos. Menu Dossiers. BeautyLab Doctipharma. Un article Un médicament.

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Les pièges à éviter Les risques Chirurgie plastique : adresses et sites utiles Contacts utiles Forums chirurgie plastique Forum chirurgie esthétique Forum Botox Forum médecine esthétique Album chirurgie esthétique Nos services Guide des prénoms. Augmentation du volume des seins — Prothèses mammaires : objectifs, indications et remboursement de la plastie d'augmentation mammaire par prothèses.

Voir aussi. Chirurgie esthétique des seins. Ecrit par: La rédaction de Doctissimo.