Calories for 6 year old boy

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Cadre de santé Infirmier e Kinesitherapeuthe, Ostéopathe Orthophoniste. Orthoptiste Pédicure Podologue Psychomotricien. Pratiques en nutrition. Acheter l'article à This indicator reflects the percentage of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during their current or previous pregnancy within the past 2 years. It provides information about the quality and coverage of perinatal medical services.

Daily iron and folic acid supplementation is currently recommended by WHO as part of antenatal care, to reduce the risk of low birth weight, maternal anaemia and iron deficiency. Daily supplementation throughout pregnancy, beginning as early as possible after conception, is recommended in all settings.

Despite its proven efficacy and wide inclusion in antenatal care programmes, the use of iron and folic acid supplementation has been limited in programme settings.

Possible reasons for this include a lack of compliance, concerns about the safety of the intervention among women with an adequate iron intake, and variable availability of the supplements at community level. This indicator is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global nutrition monitoring framework.

This indicator is defined as the proportion of women who consumed any iron-containing supplements during their current or previous pregnancy within the past 2 years. Data can be reported on any iron-containing supplement, including iron and folic acid tablets, multiple micronutrient tablets or powders, or iron-only tablets which will vary, depending on the country policy. Improving the intake of iron and folic acid by women of reproductive age could improve pregnancy outcomes, and improve maternal and infant health.

Iron and folic acid supplementation is used to improve the iron and folate status of women before and during pregnancy, in communities where food-based strategies are not yet fully implemented or effective. Folic acid supplementation with or without iron provided before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy is also recommended for decreasing the risk of neural tube defects.

Anaemia during pregnancy places women at risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including maternal mortality; it also increases the risks for perinatal mortality, premature birth and low birth weight. Infants born to anaemic mothers have less than one half the normal iron reserves. Morbidity from infectious diseases is increased in iron-deficient populations, owing to the adverse effect of iron deficiency on the immune system. Iron deficiency is also associated with reduced work capacity and reduced neurocognitive development.

Developing and validating an iron and folic acid supplementation indicator for tracking progress towards global nutrition monitoring framework targets. Final report - June Weekly iron and folic perte de poids avec la cure de raisin supplementation as an anaemia-prevention strategy in women and adolescent girls.

Lessons learnt from implementation of programmes among levure de biere cheveux resultat immediat ebay women of reproductive age.

Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation WIFs in women of reproductive age: its role in promoting optimal maternal and child health. Global targets to improve maternal, infant and young child nutrition. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration solution ORS.

The percentage of children aged under 5 years with diarrhoea receiving ORS is an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets.

Coverage of diarrhoea treatment is also included in the Global reference list of core health indicators. This indicator is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks and who received ORS fluids made from ORS packets or pre-packaged ORS fluids.

Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of soin specifique visage body minute or more loose or liquid stools per day. Most of the deaths in children from diarrhoea could be averted by using ORS and zinc supplementation during episodes of diarrhoea, and basic interventions to improve drinking water, sanitation and hygiene WASH.

Preventing child deaths. Diarrhoeal disease. Fact sheet. This indicator reflects the prevalence of children who were given zinc as part of treatment for acute diarrhoea.

There are no readily available data on this indicator, which is maintained in the NLiS to encourage countries to collect and compile data on these aspects, in order to assess their national capacity. One of the measures used to prevent childhood diarrhoeal episodes is the promotion of zinc intake. Diarrhoeal diseases account for nearly 2 million deaths a year among children aged under 5, making such diseases the second most common cause of child death worldwide.

Zinc supplementation improves the outcomes of diarrhoeal treatment. Protective and preventive measures against acute diarrhoea recommended by WHO and UNICEF are exclusive breastfeeding, adequate complementary feeding and continued breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, improved hygiene, better access to clean sources of drinking-water and sanitation facilities, and vaccination against rotavirus.

Zinc supplementation, oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding are among the recommended safe and effective methods of treating diarrhoea.

Specifically, zinc supplements given during an episode of acute diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of the episode, and giving zinc supplements for 10—14 days lowers the incidence of diarrhoea in the following 2—3 months.

Ending preventable child deaths from pneumonia and diarrhoea by Zinc supplementation in the management of diarrhoea. Births in baby-friendly facilities. This indicator reflects the proportion of babies born in facilities that have been designated as baby-friendly. This indicator is defined as the proportion of babies born in facilities designated as baby-friendly in a calendar year.

To be counted as currently baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the past 5 years or have been reassessed within that time frame. Facilities may be designed as baby-friendly if they meet the minimum global criteria, which includes adherence to:. The more of the Ten steps that the mother experiences, the better her success with breastfeeding. Improved breastfeeding practices worldwide could save the lives of more than children every year.

National implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative Global nutrition targets breastfeeding policy brief. Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Mothers of children aged 0—23 months receiving counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding.

Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers. Optimal practices include early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by appropriate complementary with continued breastfeeding for 2 years or beyond.

Although it is a natural act, breastfeeding is also a learnt behaviour. Almost all mothers can breastfeed, provided they have accurate information and have support within their families and communities, and from the health care system.

Mothers should also have access to skilled practical help from, for example, trained health workers, lay and peer counsellors, and certified lactation consultants. This indicator has been established to measure the proportion of mothers receiving breastfeeding counselling, support or messages. The proportion of mothers of children aged 0—23 months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the previous 12 months is included as a process indicator in kamen rider ooo panda core set of indicators for the Global nutrition monitoring framework.

This indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged 0—23 months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the past year. Meanwhile, an interim indicator has been established to measure the availability of all provision for breastfeeding counselling services in public health or nutrition programmes. Counselling and informational support on optimal breastfeeding practices for mothers improves initiation and duration of breastfeeding, which has many health benefits for both the mother and infant.

Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first 6 months of life. Also, breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and it may have longer term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence.

Breastfeeding has also been associated with a higher intelligence quotient IQ in children. Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy to eliminate iodine-deficiency disorders as a public health problem; the aim is to achieve universal salt iodization. While other foodstuffs can be iodized, salt has the advantage of being both widely consumed and inexpensive. Salt has been iodized routinely in some industrialized countries since the dim gaine minceur. The indicator is a measure of the percentage of households consuming iodized salt, which is defined as salt containing 15—40 parts per million of iodine.

Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with thyroid problems e. However, it takes its greatest toll in impaired mental growth and development in children, which contribute to poor school performance, reduced intellectual ability and impaired work performance. Micronutrient deficiencies: iodine deficiency disorders.

Iodization of salt for the prevention and control of iodine deficiency disorders. Population with less than the minimum dietary energy consumption prevalence of undernourishment. This indicator is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements and who, therefore, are undernourished or food-deprived. The prevalence of undernourishment is essentially estimated by measuring food deprivation based on calculations of three parameters for each country: the average amount of food available for human consumption per person, the level of inequality in gaining access to that food and the minimum number of calories required for an average person.

Data from household surveys are used to derive a coefficient of variation, to account for the degree of inequality in access to food. Similarly, because a large adult needs almost twice as much dietary energy as a 3-year-old child, the minimum energy requirement per person in each country is based on averages of age, gender and body sizes in that country.

The average energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body weight, body composition, and levels of necessary and desirable physical activity that are consistent with long-term good health.

It includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, along with the deposition of tissues during pregnancy and secretion of milk during lactation that are consistent with the good health of the mother and child. The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group. Trends in undernourishment are due mainly to:. The indicator is a measure of an important aspect of food insecurity in a population.

Sustainable development requires a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including providing solutions to hunger and malnutrition. Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for reducing poverty sustainably, because undernourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity. Malnutrition can arise from a range of circumstances. For poverty reduction strategies to be effective, they must address food access, availability and safety.

Human energy requirements. Rome, 17—24 October The state of food insecurity in the world — technical note: FAO methodology to estimate the prevalence of undernourishment. Population below the international poverty line. This indicator gives the prevalence of people living in extreme poverty, as measured by their daily consumption or income. It allows comparisons and aggregation of data on the progress of countries in reducing extreme poverty, as well as monitoring of global trends.

The value of the international poverty line is subject to periodic updates, in efforts to hold the real value of the poverty line constant in order to accurately assess rates of poverty. The proportion of the population below the international poverty line is used to assess and monitor poverty at the global level; however, as with other indicators, it is not equally relevant in all regions because countries have different definitions of poverty.

People living in extreme poverty are at a high risk of malnutrition which, in turn, is one of the most important risk factors for disease. In the presence of poverty, malnutrition can result in a downward spiral that may end in death:.

United Nations. Turning the tide of malnutrition: responding to the challenge of the 21st century. Infant and young child feeding. The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include:. The caring practice indicators for feeding infants and young children that are available on the NLiS country profiles include:.

Early initiation of breastfeeding. This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth. Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed. This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. This is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk, with no other food or drink, including water. The infant is, however, allowed to receive oral rehydration solution ORS and drops or syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine.

Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important health benefits for mothers. An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants, providing all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life.

Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development, and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality from common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and means that the child is likely to recover more quickly from illness.

Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers, and saving family and national resources. It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. Infants aged 6 — 8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. This indicator is the percentage of infants between 6—8 months of age who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.

WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. This indicator is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who received solid, semisolid or soft foods during the previous day. When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. This vulnerable period is the time when malnutrition often starts, which contributes significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children aged under 5 years worldwide.

Children aged 6 — 23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity MDD. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. As recommended by TEAM in Junedietary diversity is present when the diet contains five or more of the following food groups:. Children aged 6 — 23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet MAD. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet.

The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from:. Dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups:. The minimum daily meal frequency is defined as:. A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged 6—23 months.

Without adequate dietary diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months.

Infant and young child feeding list of publications. WHO global data bank on regime vegetarien scarsdale inquirer and young child feeding. The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include:. How is it defined? Breastfeeding improves child health, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water.

An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life.

Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness.

Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.

The indicator is the percentage of infants between months of age who start solid, semisolid or soft foods. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods during the previous day. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide. Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet.

Proportion of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality.

Source of all infant and young child feeding indicators.

Global Targets to improve maternal, infant and young child nutrition. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who receive oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding. The percentage of children aged under 5 years with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy ORT and continued feeding during illness is included as an additional indicator in the Global reference list of core health indicators.

This is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks and who received ORT oral rehydration salts, recommended home fluids or increased fluids and continued feeding. Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.

Health expenditure. Health expenditure includes all expenditures for the provision of health services, family planning activities, nutrition activities and emergency aid designated for health, but it excludes the provision of drinking water and sanitation.

Health financing is a critical component of health systems. National health accounts provide a large set of indicators based on information about expenditure collected within an internationally recognized framework. General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure — This indicator is defined as the level thé minceur vert naomi ragen general government expenditure on health GGHE expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure.

It shows the weight of public spending on health within the total value of public sector operations. This indicator includes not just the resources channelled through government budgets, but also the expenditures channelled through government entities for health by parastatals, extrabudgetary entities and, notably, compulsory health insurance.

The indicator refers to resources collected and pooled by public agencies, including all revenue modalities. Total expenditure on health as a percentage of gross domestic product GDP — This indicator is defined as the level of total expenditure on health expressed as a percentage of GDP, where GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.

The larger the per capita income, the greater the expenditure on health. Some countries, however, spend appreciably more than would be expected from their income levels, and some appreciably less. When a government attributes proportionately less of its total expenditure on health, this may indicate that health, including nutrition, is not regarded as a priority. Health expenditure includes that for the provision of health services, family planning activities, nutrition activities and emergency aid designated for health, but excludes the provision of water and sanitation.

National health accounts provide a large set of indicators based on information on expenditure collected within an internationally recognized framework. National health accounts consist of a synthesis of the financing and spending flows recorded in the operation of a health system, from funding sources and agents to the distribution of funds between providers and functions of health systems and benefits geographically, demographically, socioeconomically and epidemiologically.

How are they defined? General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure is defined as the level of general government expenditure on health GGHE expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure. The indicator contributes to understanding the weight of public spending on health within the total value of public sector operations.

It includes not just the resources channelled through government budgets but also the expenditure on health by parastatals, extrabudgetary entities and notably the compulsory health insurance. The indicator refers to resources collected and pooled by public agencies including all the revenue modalities.

The indicator provides information on the level of resources channelled to health relative to a country's wealth. These indicators reflect government and total expenditure on health resources, access and services, including nutrition, in relation to government expenditure, the wealth of the country, and per capita. Although increasing health expenditures are associated with better health outcomes, especially in low-income countries, there is no 'recommended' level of spending on health.

When a government attributes less of its total expenditure on health, this may indicate that health, including nutritionare not regarded as priorities. National health accounts. Wealth, health and health expenditure.

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UNDAFs usually focus on three to five areas in which the country team can make the greatest difference, in addition to activities that are supported by other agencies in response to national demands, but fall outside the common UNDAF results matrix.

For each national priority selected for UN country team support, the UNDAF results matrix gives the following outcome s ; the outcomes and outputs of other agencies, working alone or together; the role of partners; resource mobilization targets for each agency outcome; and coordination mechanisms and programme modalities.

The nutrition component of the UNDAF reflects the priority attributed to nutrition by the UN agencies in each country, and gives an indication of how much the UN system is committed to helping governments improve their food and nutrition situation. UNDAF documents follow a predefined format, with a core narrative and a results matrix.

The results matrix in the UNDAF document was used to assess commitment to nutrition, because it represents a synthesis of the strategy proposed in the document and is available in the same format in most country documents. The method and scoring are described in detail by Engesveen et al. What are the implications? A weak nutrition component in the UNDAF document does not necessarily imply that no UN agency is working to improve nutrition in the country.

However, unless such efforts are mentioned in strategy documents such as the UNDAF, they may receive inadequate attention from development partners to ensure the necessary sustainability or scale-up to adequately address nutrition problems in that country. The multisectoral nature of nutrition means that it must be addressed by a wide range of actors. Basing such action within frameworks for overall development ensures the accountability of UN partners. SCN News. Nutrition component of poverty reduction strategy papers.

The PRSP should state the development priorities, and should specify the policies, programmes and resources needed to meet these goals. It is prepared by governments in a participatory process that involves civil society and development partners, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and should result in a comprehensive, country-based strategy for poverty reduction.

The papers were systematically searched for keywords to identify the sections that concerned nutrition, food security, health outcomes and interventions botox da lola alisa mesmo would be relevant for the World Bank method.

To classify the commitments to nutrition in the PRSPs, a scoring system was developed, which is described in more detail by Engesveen et al. A weak nutrition component in the document does not necessarily imply that no government department is working to improve nutrition in the country; however, unless such efforts are mentioned in strategy documents such as PRSPs, they may not be sufficiently sustainable or scaled-up to adequately address nutrition problems in that country.

Basing such action within frameworks for overall development ensures the accountability of relevant government departments. International Monetary Fund. Shekar M, Lee Y-K. Mainstreaming nutrition in all: what does it take? A review of the early experience. Health, nutrition and population discussion paper.

Global nutrition policy review. What does it take to scale-up nutrition action? Geneva: World Health Organization; www. Global nutrition policy review Country progress in creating enabling policy environments for promoting healthy diets and nutrition.

Nutrition governance. These elements were identified by countries as key elements for successful development and implementation of national nutrition policies and strategies, during a review of the progress of countries in implementing the World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition.

This plan was adopted by the International Conference on Nutrition, the first intergovernmental conference on nutrition Nishida et al. For instance, a national nutrition plan and policy was considered to provide the political basis for initiating action. In many countries, the official government endorsement or adoption of a national nutrition plan or policy facilitated its implementation.

The role of an intersectoral coordinating committee in implementing national nutrition plans and policies was also considered to be crucial, although the nature i. Additional important elements were regular surveys and other means of collecting data on nutrition. A national nutrition information system being updated periodically, and data on food and nutrition being collected routinely, were considered important for evaluating the effectiveness of national nutrition plans and policies, and for identifying subsequent actions.

Strategies for effective and sustainable national nutrition plans and policies. Modern aspects of nutrition, present knowledge and future perspectives. Basel, Karger Forum for Nutrition 56— Maternity protection indicators. These indicators provide information on national policies for legal entitlement to maternity protection, including leave from work during pregnancy and after birth, as well breastfeeding entitlements after return to work.

Since the ILO was founded ininternational labour standards have been established to provide maternity protection for women workers. Key elements of maternity protection include the following:. Convention No. Recommendation No. A composite indicator on maternity protection is included as a policy environment and capacity indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global nutrition monitoring framework.

However, an alternative method is under development, taking into account the higher standards stated in Recommendation No. The number of countries with maternity protection laws or regulations in place is also included as an additional indicator in the WHO Global reference list of core health indicators. The ILO periodically publishes information on the above key indicators, including an assessment of compliance with Convention No.

The legislative data are collected by the ILO through periodical reviews of national labour and social security legislation, and secondary sources, such as the International Social Security Association and International Network on Leave Policies and Research, as well as consultations with ILO experts in regional and national ILO offices worldwide. Maternity protection is a composite indicator that is included in the Global nutrition monitoring framework ; it is currently defined as whether the country has maternity protection laws or regulations in place that are compliant with the provisions for leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits in Convention No.

However, an alternative method is under development, which may use a scale to indicate the degree of compliance. This method will also take into account the higher standards for leave duration and remuneration in Recommendation No. Pregnancy and maternity are a potentially vulnerable time for working women and their families.

Expectant and breastfeeding mothers require special protection to prevent any potential adverse effects for them and their infants. They need adequate time to give birth, to recover from the delivery process and to breastfeed their children.

At the same time, these women require income security and protection, to ensure that they will not suffer from income loss or job loss because of pregnancy and maternity leave. The need to return to work after maternity leave has been identified as a significant cause for never starting breastfeeding, early cessation of breastfeeding and lack of exclusive breastfeeding. In most low- and middle-income countries, paid maternity leave is either limited to formal sector employment or not always provided in practice.

The ILO estimates that more than million women lack economic security around childbirth, with adverse effects on the health, nutrition and well-being of mothers and their children. Working conditions laws database. Maternity and paternity at work: law and practice across the world. Maternity cash benefits for workers in the informal economy. Social protection for all issue brief. Why invest, and what it will take to improve breastfeeding practices?

This indicates whether a government has adopted legislation to monitor and enforce the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes the Code — an international health policy framework that was adopted by the World Health Assembly in — and its subsequent related resolutions.

The number of countries with legislation or regulations that fully implement the Code, and the subsequent relevant resolutions adopted by the Health Assembly, is included as a policy environment and capacity indicator in the Global nutrition monitoring framework.

It is also included as an additional indicator in the WHO Global reference list of core health indicators. This indicator is defined on the basis of whether a government has adopted legislation for the effective national implementation and monitoring of the Code, which is a set of recommendations to regulate the marketing of breast-milk substitutes, feeding bottles and teats.

The improper marketing and promotion of food products that compete with breastfeeding often negatively affect the choices and ability of a mother to feed her infant optimally, by discouraging the practice of breastfeeding. The Code was formulated in response to the realization that such marketing resulted in poor infant feeding practices, which in turn negatively affect the growth, health and development of children, and are a major cause of mortality in infants and young children.

The Code seeks to promote the practice of breastfeeding and ensure that substitutes, if necessary, are used safely. Worldwide, breastfeeding practices are not yet optimal, both in developing and developed countries, especially regarding exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months of age. Infant formula is not a sterile product, and it may carry infectious agents that can cause fatal illnesses. Artificial feeding is expensive, it requires clean water, the ability of the mother or caregiver to read and comply with mixing instructions, and a minimum standard of overall household hygiene.

Marketing of breast-milk substitutes: national implementation of the international code: status report The international code of marketing of breast-milk substitutes: frequently asked questions, update. Regulation of marketing breast-milk substitutes. Degree training in nutrition exists. What does the indicator tell us? This indicator reflects the capacity of a country to train professionals in nutrition. It is based on the presence of national higher education institutions that offer training in nutrition.

This indicator is defined as the existence in the country of higher education institutions that offer training in nutrition. Higher education training institutions include universities and other schools, offering graduate and post-graduate degrees in nutrition or dietetics with focus areas such as public health nutrition, community nutrition, clinical nutrition dieteticsfood and nutrition policy, nutrition science and epidemiology, and nutrition education or counselling skills.

Trained nutrition professionals work at health facilities and at the population and community levels; they may influence nutrition policies, as well as the design and implementation of nutrition intervention programmes at various levels.

They also play an important role in training other health and non-health cadres to plan and deliver nutrition interventions in various settings. The availability of a sufficient workforce with appropriate training in nutrition within a country will lead to better outcomes for country-specific nutrition and health concerns.

A competency framework for global public health nutrition workfore development: a background paper. Building systemic capacity for nutrition: training towards a professionalised workforce for Africa. Proc Nutr Soc. Nutrition is part of medical curricula. This indicator reflects the inclusion of maternal, infant and young child nutrition in the pre-service training of health personnel. This indicator is defined as the existence of pre-service training in maternal, infant and young child nutrition for health personnel.

The second global nutrition policy review survey investigates training in three key areas of maternal, infant and young child nutrition — namely, growth monitoring and promotion, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, and management of severe or moderate acute malnutrition.

The first two of these three topics are relevant for all forms of malnutrition, whereas the third only pertains to undernutrition. Training on other topics e. Adequate training of health professionals is essential to ensure that the professionals include nutrition activities in their regular health care activities.

Nutrition counseling training changes physician behavior and improves caregiver knowledge acquisition. Nutrition Journal. Public Health. Density of trained nutrition professionals per population. This indicator reflects the capacity of a country to design and implement nutrition policies and programmes effectively. It focuses on individuals who are trained to pursue a professional career in nutrition, described in most countries as dietitians or nutritionists including nutrition scientists, nutritional epidemiologists and public health nutritionists.

These individuals are trained sufficiently in nutrition practice to demonstrate defined competencies, and to meet the certification or registration requirements of national or global nutrition or dietetics professional organizations.

This training, at universities or other tertiary or higher education institutions, may occur at bachelor, post-graduate certificate or diploma, masters or doctoral degree levels.

Only in some countries do dietitians and nutritionists complete the same training and perform the same functions. Similarly, professional registration or accreditation of dietitians and nutritionists only occurs in some countries, and where it does occur it may be joint or separate. Countries are encouraged to implement the professional registration or accreditation of dietitians and nutritionists, to provide a guarantee of appropriate training and professional competence.

Trained nutrition professionals work at facilities including health facilities and at population and community levels; they may influence nutrition policies and design as well as the implementation of nutrition intervention programmes at various levels. Validation of the indicator has shown that it can predict several maternal, infant and young child nutrition outcomes.

A competency framework for global public health nutrition workforce development: a background paper. Density of nurses and midwives. Nurse and midwife density indicates whether nurses and midwifery personnel are available to address the health care needs of a given population.

Health worker density and distribution is included in the WHO Global reference list of core health indicators. This indicator is the number of nursing and midwifery personnel, and their density per population. These personnel include professional nurses and midwives, auxiliary nurses and midwives, enrolled nurses and midwives, and other personnel such as dental nurses and primary care nurses. Traditional birth attendants are not counted in this number, but are classed as community or traditional health workers.

There is no gold standard for what a sufficient health workforce would be to address the health care needs of a given population. It has been estimated, however, that countries with fewer than 25 health care professionals counting only physicians, nurses and midwives per 10 population fail to achieve adequate coverage rates for important primary health care interventions.

Health lfg regime de bens. Aggregated data. Density per